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SAUDI ARABIA: “It’s like we are not human”: Forced returns, abhorrent detention conditions of Ethiopian migrants in Saudi Arabia

December 16, 2022

Since 2017, as part of a campaign to crackdown on undocumented migrants, Saudi authorities have arbitrarily arrested hundreds of thousands of Ethiopian migrants crossing the border from Yemen or residing in Saudi Arabia, held them in indefinite detention in inhuman and cruel conditions, subjected them to torture and other ill-treatment, and then forcibly returned them to their home country. These arbitrary arrests and subsequent treatment occurred solely because the migrants didn’t have valid residency documents, a situation exacerbated by the abusive kafala system in Saudi Arabia.

Violence against women in Easter Europe and Central Asia: Protect women from violence during crisis and beyond

December 14, 2022

Covid-19, the Russian aggression against Ukraine, and widespread reliance on “traditional values” have compounded a deteriorating human rights situation and increasing levels of domestic violence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. This report exposes institutional, social and cultural challenges faced by survivors of domestic violence in the region and demonstrates how ill-adapted and often deaf state institutions are to their needs. A growing traditionalist, patriarchal and often openly misogynistic political agenda is eroding already sparce institutional, legal and other safeguards against such violence.

MOROCCO: “They beat him in the head, to check if he was dead”: Evidence of crimes under international law by Morocco and Spain at the Melilla border

December 13, 2022

On 24 June 2022, the deadliest incident ever recorded at the Melilla border between Morocco and Spain left at least 37 Black people dead and 77 more missing. The victims, refugees and migrants from sub-Saharan Africa seeking safety, were met with prolonged and unlawful use of force by Moroccan and Spanish security forces. This report details how this violence, along with a failure to provide timely medical assistance, contributed to – if not directly caused – their deaths and injuries.

UKRAINE: “I Used To Have A Home”: Older People’s Experience of War, Displacement, And Access To Housing in Ukraine

December 6, 2022

Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, which has been marked by a flagrant disregard for civilian life, has had a devastating impact on older people. This report shows how older people have made up a disproportionate number of civilian deaths and injuries. It also shows how intersecting challenges such as disability, poverty and age discrimination place older people in displacement at higher risk, particularly with regards to accessing housing. Older people stay behind in damaged homes without roofs or windows, and thousands have been placed in state institutions, which can lead to their isolation, neglect and abuse.

RUSSIA: “You Will Be Arrested Anyway”: Reprisals Against Monitors and Media Workers Reporting from Protests

November 24, 2022

Over the last 10 years, the human rights situation in Russia has been continuously deteriorating. The authorities have severely curtailed people’s rights to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly, deploying a whole arsenal of laws and practices that are in stark contrast to Russia’s international human rights obligations. This document looks into the human rights violations committed against two specific groups who play important roles for the enjoyment of the right to peaceful assembly. The first group – public assembly monitors – performs a watchdog function by recording how rigorously the authorities observe their human rights obligations in the context of public assemblies. The other group – media workers – ensures that society is informed about public assemblies and concerns that have brought people to the streets, and reports on how the protests have been handled by the authorities.

SOUTH SUDAN: African Union’s abandoned commitment to justice in Africa: The case of the hybrid court for South Sudan

November 23, 2022

It is seven years since the first peace deal was signed in South Sudan and with it a commitment made to set up a African Union-backed up Hybrid Court for South Sudan (HCSS) to investigate and prosecute war crimes and other human rights violations committed in the conflict since 2011. But the creation of the HCSS has been delayed. The establishment of the HCSS is an opportunity for the AU to demonstrate African leadership on justice for the most serious crimes in Africa, a real commitment to the organization’s principles and to demonstrate that the AU stands with survivors and victims of crimes for which impunity cannot be tolerated.

Unprotected in ECUADOR: Venezuelan refugee women survivors of gender-based violence

November 17, 2022

Ecuador is the country with the third largest Venezuelan refugee population on the continent. Women, who make up about half of this population, face multiple forms of violence in different spaces, private and public. This report documents how the Ecuadorian state is failing to guarantee the rights of Venezuelan women survivors of gender-based violence who are refugees in the country by not providing them with information or effective access to protection and justice mechanisms.

“Like A Prison Convoy”: Russia’s Unlawful Transfer And Abuse of Civilians In Ukraine During ‘Filtration

November 10, 2022

Russian and Russian-controlled forces have committed war crimes and likely crimes against humanity by unlawfully transferring or deporting civilians from certain occupied parts of Ukraine. Russian and Russian-controlled authorities also forced civilians through an abusive screening process known as ‘filtration,’ where some were arbitrarily detained, subject to torture or other ill-treatment, and separated from their children.

ISRAEL AND OCCUPIED PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES: ‘They were just kids’: Evidence of war crimes during Israel’s August 2022 Gaza offensive

October 25, 2022

On 5 August 2022, Israel launched a three-day offensive on occupied Gaza, visiting fresh trauma and destruction on a besieged population living under apartheid. Both Israeli forces and Palestinian armed groups committed apparent war crimes. In one attack, an Israeli drone killed five children at a cemetery. In another instance, seven civilians were killed in a strike likely to have been caused by a Palestinian rocket that misfired.

SRI LANKA: “We Are Near Total Breakdown”: Protecting the Rights to Health, Food and Social Security in Sri Lanka’s Economic Crisis

October 4, 2022

The ongoing economic crisis has had a devastating impact on people in Sri Lanka. This report highlights the challenges people in Sri Lanka are facing in accessing their rights to health and food, and some of the limitations of existing social security programmes in the country. It focusses on the experiences of people who have precarious jobs and rely on daily wages as their only source of income, and on people from the Malaiyaha Tamil community, both of whom are likely to be particularly impacted. As the crisis progresses, there is serious concern that its impacts will both deepen and spread wider.

MYANMAR: The social atrocity: Meta and the right to remedy for the Rohingya

September 29, 2022

Beginning in August 2017, the Myanmar security forces undertook a brutal campaign of ethnic cleansing against Rohingya Muslims. This report is based on an in-depth investigation into Meta (formerly Facebook)’s role in the serious human rights violations perpetrated against the Rohingya. Meta’s algorithms proactively amplified and promoted content which incited violence, hatred, and discrimination against the Rohingya – pouring fuel on the fire of long-standing discrimination and substantially increasing the risk of an outbreak of mass violence. The report concludes that Meta substantially contributed to adverse human rights impacts suffered by the Rohingya and has a responsibility to provide survivors with an effective remedy.

USA: “They do not treat us like people”: Race and migration-related torture and other ill-treatment of Haitians seeking safety in the USA

September 22, 2022

One year after painful and overtly racist images emerged from Del Rio, Texas, in which US Border Patrol officials mounted on horseback used excessive force against Black Haitians asylum seekers invoking associations with slavery, this report details the on-going arbitrary detention, mass expulsions and race and migration-related torture and other ill-treatment carried out by US authorities towards Haitians seeking international protection.

EGYPT: ”Disconnected from reality”: Egypt’s National Human Rights Strategy covers up human rights crisis

September 21, 2022

Egypt’s National Human Rights Strategy (NHRS) was launched one year ago by the Egyptian authorities to conceal their abysmal human rights record and deflect criticism. Amnesty International’s analysis reveals that the NHRS paints a deeply misleading picture of the human rights situation. The international community must not be deceived and pressure the Egyptian authorities to take meaningful steps to end the cycle of abuse and impunity.

SRI LANKA: Penalized for Protesting: Sri Lanka’s Crackdown on Protesters

September 8, 2022

Since February 2022, Sri Lankans have taken to the street to call for the resignations of then President, Gotabaya Rajapaksa and Prime Minister, Mahinda Rajapaksa, and for accountability for corruption, enforced disappearances, extrajudicial killings, and police misuse of force, amongst other causes. During recent protests the authorities yet again responded with a militarised approach, and in a number of instances misused force on peaceful protesters. This digest details the excessive use of force against protesters, the use of military to police protests and the failure to protect peaceful protesters. It also sets out how the government has cracked down on protesters who now face intimidation, harassment and arrest. Some of these arrests have been carried out in a manner contravening due process. The suppression of protest and the right to freedom of assembly, movement and expression must stop and the government must protect the right to peaceful protest.

INDIA: “We are Being Punished By The Law” – Three Years of Abrogation of Article 370 in Jammu & Kashmir

September 2, 2022

In the three years since 5 August 2019, the Indian government has drastically intensified the repression of the people of Jammu & Kashmir, including journalists and human rights defenders by subjecting them to multiple human rights violations. These violations include restrictions on rights to freedom of opinion and expression; to liberty and security of person; to movement; to privacy; and to remedy and access to justice. The authorities have committed these violations with absolute impunity.

UNITED KINGDOM: Meta, workers’ rights matter! The case of a trade union organiser dismissed after trying to improve working conditions for cleaners

September 1, 2022

Workers who are sub-contracted to clean the offices of Meta (formerly known as Facebook) must all be guaranteed fair working conditions as part of their right to freedom of association, including the right to form and join a union and collectively bargain for decent conditions, without fear of interference, intimidation or retaliation. Amnesty International is publishing this briefing following the dismissal of Guillermo Camacho Equez (Camacho) in October 2021.

“They don’t treat us like humans”: Unlawful returns of Afghans from Turkey and Iran

August 31, 2022

This report reveals how Turkish and Iranian security forces have unlawfully returned Afghan men, women and children to their country, despite the general situation in Afghanistan and the real risk of serious human rights violations there. Iranian and Turkish authorities have also denied Afghans the opportunity to lodge claims for international protection and have unlawfully used firearms as both a deterrent and a pushback method.

Amnesty International is calling on all countries not to forcibly return Afghans not only to Afghanistan, but also to Turkey or Iran, where Afghans would be at risk of refoulement to Afghanistan. Amnesty International is also calling on countries hosting Afghans to arrange or support safe passage and evacuations from Afghanistan for all those at risk of reprisals from the Taliban and to increase resettlement opportunities and other commitments for Afghan refugees.

AFGHANISTAN: the rule of Taliban – A year of violence, impunity and false promises

August 15, 2022

Reports of various human rights violations from Afghanistan keep coming in and it is impossible to cover the full scope of these violations. This briefing aims to document some of these serious violations, highlight the lack of accountability by the Taliban and the weak international response to address the situation. It is a compilation of incidents and compelling testimonies from Afghans including former government and security officials, women protestors, girls’ students, teachers, journalists, human rights defenders and women’s rights defenders, whose rights have been violated by the Taliban.

IRAN: They are shooting brazenly: Iran’s militarized response to May 2022 protests

August 3, 2022

This research briefing documents how Iranian security forces used unlawful force, including live ammunition, birdshot, teargas and watercannon, to crush largely peaceful protests that erupted in the southwest of Iran in May 2022.

The briefing reiterates the need for the UN Human Rights Council to establish an independent investigative and accountability mechanism to collect, consolidate, preserve, and analyze evidence of the most serious crimes under international law committed in Iran, including in the context of protests, to enable future prosecutions.

MYANMAR: 15 days felt like 15 years: Torture in detention since the Myanmar coup

August 2, 2022

Since the military coup in February 2021, the Myanmar military has subjected detainees to torture and other ill-treatments in detention.

Amnesty International examines the behaviour of security forces in Myanmar when they arrest, interrogate, and detain individuals suspected of being involved in protests, or relatives of such individuals, vis-à-vis international human rights law and standards after the coup on 1 February 2021.

AFGHANISTAN: Death in slow motion: Women and girls under Taliban rule

July 27, 2022

In less than a year, the Taliban have decimated the rights of women and girls in Afghanistan. They have violated women’s and girls’ rights to education, work and free movement; demolished the system of support for women and girls fleeing domestic violence; arbitrarily detained women and girls for infractions of the Taliban’s discriminatory rules; and contributed to a surge in the rates of child, early and forced marriage.

Women who peacefully protested against these restrictions and policies have been harassed, threatened, arrested, forcibly disappeared, arbitrarily detained and tortured.

TUNISIA: A year of human rights regression since president’s power-grab

July 21, 2022

On 25 July 2021, President Kais Saied appeared on Tunisian state television and announced that, in light of the manifold crises gripping Tunisia, he had decided to fire the head of government, freeze parliament and lift immunity for its members, and take executive control of the country, citing emergency powers that he said were granted to him by the constitution.

Since then, President Saied has dissolved parliament and granted himself unchecked powers to govern and legislate, issuing at least 68 decree-laws without review or oversight by any other body.

POLAND: “They Treated Us Like Criminals”: From Shrinking Space to Harassment of LGBTI Activists

July 20, 2022

While the atmosphere of hostility towards LGBTI people in Poland is growing dangerously worse, those who stand up for LGBTI rights face an immediate and hostile response from the state apparatus. This report documents the stories of those who uphold LGBTI rights and the repression they face for their peaceful actions. Based on Amnesty International’s 2017 and 2018 reports on freedom of assembly, we show how Polish authorities not only inadequately protect, but add to harassment of LGBTI people. In the result, the defenders of their rights may be dragged through the courts for years just for writing in chalk or hanging a rainbow flag.

PROTECT THE PROTEST! Why we must save our right to protest

July 19, 2022

Amnesty International has long worked to protect and expand the power of protest in defending and promoting human rights. For decades, we have stood with protest movements and taken part in collective actions as part of our campaigns. We are here to remind those in power that peaceful protest is a right, not a privilege, and one which states have a duty to respect, protect and facilitate. This is why we are embarking on a global campaign that challenges the widespread assault on the ability to protest, standing by all those who dare to stand up and make their voices heard.

SYRIA: ‘Unbearable Living Conditions’: Inadequate access to economic and social rights in displacement camps in north-west Syria

July 5, 2022

In this report, Amnesty International examines the denial of key economic and social rights of internally displaced persons living in displacement camps, as the most vulnerable within the displacement community. The report examines their day-to-day lives in relation to their rights to access to housing, water and sanitation, and health and the approach of donors and humanitarian organizations’ in addressing those needs. Finally, our findings illustrate the vital role that the UN cross-border aid mechanism has played in ensuring an effective humanitarian response in the area since 2014 and the very real concerns around its sustenance.

“CHILDREN”: The attack on the Donetsk Regional Academic Drama Theatre in Mariupol, Ukraine

June 30, 2022

On 16 March 2022, shortly after 10am, a Russian air strike destroyed the Donetsk Regional Academic Drama Theatre in Mariupol, Ukraine.

At the time of the attack, hundreds of civilians were in and around the theatre; many were killed.The theatre was clearly recognizable as a civilian object, perhaps more so than any other location in the city.

The evidence Amnesty International has gathered demonstrates that the attack was a war crime.

LITHUANIA: Forced out or locked up – Refugees and migrants abused and abandoned

June 27, 2022

In 2021, thousands of people began arriving at Lithuania’s borders with Belarus with the intention of seeking asylum in the EU. Lithuanian authorities responded by adopting laws that curtailed the right to seek asylum, codified arbitrary detention and led to numerous human rights violations. This report documents the multiple human rights violations carried out by Lithuanian authorities in 2021-2022. Such abuses continue and stand in stark contrast to the benevolence displayed toward people fleeing from Ukraine in the same year, revealing the double standards applied by the EU and its member states in their treatment of migrants and refugees based on their race, ethnicity, nationality or origins.

UKRAINE: “Anyone can die at any time”
Indiscriminate attacks by Russian forces in Kharkiv, Ukraine

June 13, 2022 – Index Number: EUR 50/5682/2022

From the beginning of their invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, Russian forces launched a relentless campaign of indiscriminate bombardments against Kharkiv, Ukraine’s second-biggest city. They shelled residential neighbourhoods almost daily, killing and injuring hundreds of civilians and causing wholesale destruction, often using widely banned cluster munitions.

UNITED KINGDOM: An Obstacle Course: Homelessness Assistance and the Right to Housing in England

June 7, 2022

This report examines law, policy and practice concerning homelessness in England from a human rights perspective and highlights gaps between the UK’s international human rights commitments and its approach to homelessness at the domestic level. It provides an overview of homelessness in England and locates it in the broader context of the country’s housing crisis.

MYANMAR: “Bullets rained from the sky”: War crimes and displacement in eastern Myanmar

May 31, 2022

Following the military coup in February 2021, armed conflict reignited in eastern Myanmar’s Kayin and Kayah States. In its operations, the military has inflicted collective punishment on civilians, forcibly displacing more than 150,000 people.

It has relentlessly attacked villages with shelling and air strikes, killing and injuring civilians and damaging homes, schools, hospitals, and religious buildings.

Soldiers have unlawfully detained, tortured, and extrajudicially executed people who tried to return home. And the military has burned villages and pillaged everything of value that displaced families had to leave behind.

“There is no help for our community”: The impact of States’ Covid-19 responses on groups affected by unjust criminalization

May 31, 2022

This report documents the disproportionate impact of Covid-19 pandemic measures on marginalized and criminalized communities.

State responses to Covid-19 have magnified the inequalities faced by groups and communities that were already targeted or otherwise impacted by unjust and discriminatory criminal laws, including LGBTI people, sex workers, people who use drugs, people in need of abortion, homeless people and people living in poverty.

Putting human rights at the heart of government efforts to address public health emergency responses is not an optional consideration, it is an obligation.

Death sentences and executions 2021

May 24, 2022I

This report covers the judicial use of the death penalty for the period January to December 2021.

Amnesty International reports only on executions, death sentences and other aspects of the use of the death penalty, such as commutations and exonerations, where there is reasonable confirmation.

In many countries governments do not publish information on their use of the death penalty.

QATAR: predictable and preventable: Why FIFA and Qatar should remedy abuses behind the 2022 World Cup

May 19, 2022

When FIFA awarded the 2022 World Cup to Qatar in 2010, the existence of widespread labour rights abuses was well-documented. FIFA knew, or ought to have known, that the monumental construction work and other services required to host the tournament would rest on the shoulders of vulnerable migrant workers at severe risk of exploitation. Yet, despite these warnings, FIFA granted the multi-billion-dollar event to Qatar without imposing on the country any conditions to strengthen labour rights protections. Recognising its responsibilities far too late, and introducing measures benefiting far too few workers, the abuses that followed were both predictable and preventable.

ARMENIA: Last to flee: Older people’s experience of war crimes and displacement in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

May 17, 2022

As the war between Armenia and Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh enters its third decade, renewed fighting in 2020 underscored the risks to one particular group: older people. Older ethnic Armenians were invariably among the last to flee their villages, and reportedly made up more than half of civilian deaths. Many were subject to war crimes by Azerbaijani forces, including extrajudicial killings and torture and other ill-treatment in detention. Some older men are still missing.

Azerbaijan : “Life in a box”: Older people’s experiences of displacement and prospects for return in Azerbaijan

May 17, 2022

For three decades, over half a million Azerbaijanis who fled war with Armenia have endured the limbo of displacement.

In 2020, renewed fighting resulted in Azerbaijan retaking huge swathes of territory.

As the government plans for the return of hundreds of thousands of displaced people to those lands, older people, who often have strong attachments to their home communities, are likely to return in large numbers.

Sri Lanka: From bad to worse: Rights under attack during Sri Lanka’s economic crisis

May 6, 2022

People in Sri Lanka are facing a catastrophic economic crisis. They are experiencing severe shortages in essential medicines, cooking gas and food items, with fuel shortages prompting power outages of up to 13 hours a day while sky-high inflation has sharply increased the cost of living. The rights to education, health and adequate standard of living are all affected, forcing thousands out on to the streets in protest, demanding the resignation of the president and the prime minister. The Sri Lankan government must protect the human rights of everyone and ensure an enabling environment for peacefully expressing dissent.

Ukraine: “He’s not coming back”. War crimes in Northwest areas of Kyiv Oblast

May 6, 2022

This briefing provides compelling evidence of Russian war crimes committed in February and March 2022 in towns and villages northwest of Kyiv, during Russian forces’ unsuccessful advance on the capital.

MALI: Crimes without convictions: Analysis of the judicial response to conflict related crimes in central Mali

April 13, 2022

Mali has been grappling with an internal armed conflict for 10 years. Initially pitting the Malian army against secessionist movements in the north allied with Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)-affiliated groups.

Since 2018, the Malian authorities have repeatedly pledged to fight impunity and address the rights of victims and their families to justice. Despite these commitments, the course of justice remains slow, frustrating victims and their families, and reinforcing impunity.

This report takes stock of Mali’s judicial response to conflict-related crimes committed since 2018 in the central regions of the country.

IRAN: in death’s waiting room: deaths in custody following deliberate denial of medical care in Iran’s prisons

April 12, 2022

This briefing documents how Iranian officials are committing shocking violations of the right to life by deliberately denying ailing prisoners lifesaving healthcare and refusing to investigate and ensure accountability for unlawful deaths in custody.

The briefing details the circumstances surrounding the deaths in custody of 92 men and four women in 30 prisons in 18 provinces across Iran since 2010.

PHILIPPINES 2022 Elections: 8-point human rights agenda for candidates

April 6, 2022

Through this eight-point agenda, Amnesty International urges the candidates running in the May 2022 Philippine elections to ensure that the protection and promotion of human rights is a core part of their plans for the country. Amnesty International puts forward key human rights issues and offers recommendations so that the Philippines may meet its obligations under international human rights law.

The organization calls upon all election candidates to commit to putting human rights at the centre of their plans, including by pledging to uphold the recommendations below and addressing human rights explicitly in their campaigns.

Commitment to human rights must be visible in the candidates’ plans of action so Filipinos are aware of candidates’ stance on this issue before they cast their vote.

ETHIOPIA: “We will erase you from this land”: Crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing in Ethiopia’s western region

April 6, 2022

Goitom, a 42-year-old ethnic Tigrayan farmer, lived in Adi Goshu, a town in Western Tigray, a large and fertile district known for growing sesame, sorghum, and cotton in Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region.

On January 17, 2021, he watched helplessly from his home as Amhara Special Forces and local militias beat up and detained Tigrayans in his town.

Tigrayans had already faced months of intimidation by local authorities and Amhara security forces, and so Goitom ran to a nearby forest to escape the latest onslaught until the situation subsided.

Amnesty International Report 2021/22: the state of the world’s human rights

March 29, 2022

The Amnesty International Report 2021/22 highlights the human rights situation in 154 countries in 2021.

It presents Amnesty International’s documented concerns and recommendations for governments and others. From a human rights perspective, 2021 was largely a story of betrayal and hypocrisy in the corridors of power.

But hopes for a better post-pandemic world were kept alive by courageous individuals, social movements and civil society organizations. Their efforts and limited hard-won victories should prompt governments to live up to their promises.

Ukraine: Humanitarian Catastrophe in Izium. The Plight of Civilians under Bombardment and Siege-like Conditions

March 22, 2022

On 24 February, the Russian armed forces began an open invasion of Ukraine, which Amnesty International considers an act of aggression.

One situation emblematic of the plight of civilians living under siege-like conditions is that of Izium, a small town with population of around 56,000 people in Kharkiv Region in eastern Ukraine. Izium has not made it into the main news headlines, yet for over two weeks the town has been on the edge of a humanitarian catastrophe.

Index Number: EUR 50/5382/2022

Indonesia: Gold Rush: Indonesia’s mining plans risk fueling abuses in Papua

March 21, 2022

The Indonesian government plans to exploit Wabu Block, a large gold ore deposit in Intan Jaya regency, Papua province. Over the last two years this region has become a hotspot for conflict and repression.

This briefing documents an increased presence of security forces in Intan Jaya regency, accompanied by unlawful killings, raids and beatings.

Indigenous Papuans also reported facing restrictions to carry out daily activities. Amnesty International is concerned about the potential human rights impacts of mining in Wabu Block in the context of the existing conflict and repression in Intan Jaya.

Index Number: ASA 21/5257/2022

Still No Answers: an update on the rights of victims of enforced disappearances in Sri Lanka

March 1, 2022

Victims of human rights violations in the context of the war and its aftermath, bravely continuing their quest for answers, as well as organisations working on enforced disappearances, now face a new dimension of rights violations.

This time the state actors are interfering with their freedom of peaceful assembly, expression and association as well as their right to liberty and security of person, including the protection against arbitrary detention.

Index Number: ASA 37/5278/2022

Ethiopia: Summary killings, rape and looting by Tigrayan forces in Amhara

February 16, 2022

Tigrayan fighters affiliated with the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) deliberately killed civilians, raped and sexually assaulted women and girls, and looted homes, shops, schools and medical clinics in two localities they controlled for a period of several weeks last year in Ethiopia’s northern Amhara region. Amnesty International is calling on Tigrayan forces to put an immediate end to such violations, and to investigate and remove from its forces anyone suspected of involvement in such crimes. It is also urging the African Union to step up its engagement in the crisis, and the relevant United Nations bodies to send experts to the region to investigate the violations.

Index Number: AFR 25/5218/2022

Money Calls the Shots

February 14, 2022

In September 2021, Amnesty International published A Double Dose of Inequality, which assessed the extent to which the pharmaceutical industry was restricting access to Covid-19 vaccines. This report updates that assessment of five leading vaccine manufacturers, AstraZeneca plc, BioNTech SE, Johnson & Johnson, Moderna Inc., and Pfizer Inc. It also includes for the first time an assessment of the two largest Chinese vaccine producers, China National Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd. (Sinopharm) and Sinovac Biotech Ltd. (Sinovac).

Venezuela: Calculated repression: Correlation between stigmatization and politically motivated arbitrary detentions

February 10, 2022

In light of all the numerical evidence in this investigation, the organizations consider that the dependent relationship between the discriminatory narratives (stigmatization) and the human rights violations (arbitrary detentions and criminalization) could indicate the existence of the crime against humanity of persecution, for which the Venezuelan authorities, including those at the highest level, should be investigated to determine their criminal responsibility for these acts.

South Korea: 7-point human rights agenda for presidential candidates

February 8, 2022

Ahead of the 2022 Presidential election in the Republic of Korea (ROK), Amnesty International calls upon the presidential candidates to respect, protect, fulfill, and promote human rights for all. The presidential candidates should publicly commit to meeting ROK’s international human rights obligations.

Israel’s apartheid against Palestinians: Cruel system of domination and crime against humanity

February 1, 2022

Amnesty International has analysed Israel’s intent to create and maintain a system of oppression and domination over Palestinians and examined its key components: territorial fragmentation; segregation and control; dispossession of land and property; and denial of economic and social rights. It has concluded that this system amounts to apartheid. Israel must dismantle this cruel system and the international community must pressure it to do so. All those with jurisdiction over the crimes committed to maintain the system should investigate them.

‘Our Traditions Are Being Destroyed’: Illegal Logging, Repression, and Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Violations in Cambodia’s Protected Forests

January 28, 2022

Cambodia lost nearly 2.5 million hectares of tree cover between 2001 and 2020. Illegal logging in Cambodia is posing an existential threat to the country’s remaining primary forests. In addition to the well-documented threats which this poses to biodiversity and climate, it also entails severe consequences for Indigenous Peoples’ cultures and human rights.

This report documents how the actions of Cambodian authorities violate the rights of the Kuy people and how Cambodian authorities thwart the Kuy people in their efforts to protect the Prey Lang and Prey Preah Roka forests.

Ireland: “We live within a violent system.” Structural violence against sex workers in Ireland

January 25, 2022

This report, based on in-depth interviews with sex workers, experts and representatives of the Irish authorities, provides insights into sex workers’ human rights in Ireland, in particular their right to safety and freedom from violence. It shows that criminalization of aspects of sex work in Ireland has a “chilling effect” on sex workers’ exercise of their human rights, for instance by preventing them from working together in one apartment for safety. Amnesty International calls on the Irish authorities to listen to sex workers and decriminalize all aspects of sex work.

Afghanistan: No escape: War crimes and civilian harm during the fall of Afghanistan to the Taliban

December 15, 2021

The fall of Kabul to the Taliban on 15 August 2021 caught the world by surprise. As the Taliban gained control of new districts, war crimes followed. Ethnic and religious minorities and supporters of the former government were targeted for torture and execution. And the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces launched mortar attacks on homes, and conducted an air strike on a hospital, all of which killed civilians hiding in fear. The attacks investigated in this report represent a small and fractured glimpse into the suffering visited upon Afghans during the last stage of US intervention in the country.

Twitter Scorecard: Tracking Twitter’s progress in addressing violence and abuse against women online in the United States

December 7, 2021

The Twitter Scorecard grades the social media company’s record on implementing a series of recommendations to tackle abuse against women on the platform in the United States. Despite some welcome progress stemming from recommendations put forth in Amnesty’s 2020 Scorecard, Twitter needs to do much more to address the online abuse of women and/or marginalized groups. The company has fully implemented just one of the ten recommendations in the report, with limited progress in improving transparency around the content moderation process and appeals process.

Nigeria, a harrowing journey: Access to justice for women and girls survivors of rape.

November 17, 2021

Sexual violence is a worldwide crisis and Nigeria is not exempt from it. Over the years, there have been reports made public by individuals, civil society organisations and the media of widespread sexual violence. Following the lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, there was an upsurge in reports of rape across Nigeria. These reports of rape triggered huge outcry and condemnation across the country. Survivors and their families, concerned citizens, civil society organisations, religious groups and other stakeholders continue to demand justice for survivors. This report documents barriers that women and girls survivors of rape face in accessing justice.

Madagascar: It will be too late to help us once we are dead

October 26, 2021

Southern Madagascar is in crisis. The southern region of the country, commonly referred to as Le Grand Sud (the Deep South) is currently experiencing its worst drought in 40 years, with more than a million people on the brink of famine and thousands more already facing catastrophic famine-like conditions.

Muzzled and unheard in the pandemic: Urgent need to address concerns of care and health workers in Italy

October 22, 2021

The briefing details how health and care workers in Italy who raised legitimate concerns about poor and unsafe working conditions in care homes during the COVID-19 pandemic were subjected to unfair disciplinary proceedings and feared recriminations from their employers.
Staff working in residential care homes during the pandemic and trade unions have raised serious concerns regarding unsafe and unhealthy working conditions, long shifts without adequate rest and inadequate labour inspections.
Amnesty calls on the Italian authorities to ensure that these workers’ voices are not silenced, but are heard instead.

Operating in the shadows: Investor risk from the private surveillance industry

October 21, 2021

Many states enhance their surveillance capabilities by buying spyware or other digital surveillance tools from surveillance companies. While governments claim to use these to fight crime and terrorism, many have used them to target human rights defenders, activists, journalists and members of civil society in violation of their internationally recognized human rights. Given the scale of disclosures revealed in the Pegasus Project, there is an urgent need for investors to assess risk of investments in the private surveillance industry. This briefing outlines the material risks, including reputational, financial, and legal risks facing companies and investors in this sector.

Silenced and misinformed: Freedom of expression in danger during Covid-19

October 19, 2021

The right to freedom of expression has been attacked globally in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic and increased the dangers posed by the public health crisis. Freedom of expression is vitally important because a free flow of accurate, evidence-based and timely information increases awareness about health risks and how to prevent and deal with them. However, governments have used the pandemic as a pretext to muzzle critical voices. Amnesty International is concerned that Covid-19 related restrictions are not just temporary measures but are part of an ongoing onslaught on human rights and civic space.

Sri Lanka: From burning houses to burning bodies: Anti-Muslim violence, discrimination and harassment in Sri Lanka

October 18, 2021

Sri Lanka’s Muslim community have faced incidents of violence, discrimination and harassment for decades. Most recently, since 2013, there have been consistent episodes, which have culminated in the adoption of government policies which expressly target the minority community. This is in addition to the misuse, and lack of amendment of domestic legislation to target and discriminate against Muslims. This report documents incidents where Muslims have been targeted, attacked and discriminated against, by various state and non-state actors.

Netherlands: Still no Safety: Venezuelans denied protection in Curaçao

October 11, 2021

Since Amnesty lnternational’s initials report in 2018, the rights of Venezuelans who have fled to Curaçao are still violated. They are automatically detained under inhumane conditions and deterred from seeking protection.
Amnesty International is calling on the government of Curaçao to ensure that all foreigners in need of protection can access the protection procedure and that no person is deported to a place where they are at risk of serious human rights violations. The organization calls on the government of the Netherlands to ensure that human rights are respected and protected in Curaçao and with other forms of cooperation.

2021 World Day Against the Death Penalty: The additional burden of the death penalty on women

October 8, 2021

10 October 2021 marks the 19th World Day Against the Death Penalty, dedicated to the impact of the death penalty on women. Many governments do not make publicly available figures on their use of the death penalty, but the limited information available suggests that in some countries women are disproportionately represented on death row for certain offences. Some women lacked effective protection against gender-based violence and other forms of discrimination before the crime was committed. For them, the death penalty has been the tip of the iceberg of the many injustices they have faced.

Togo: Hackers-for-hire in West Africa: Activist in Togo attacked with Indian-made spyware

October 7, 2021

Amnesty International has uncovered a targeted digital attack campaign against a Human Rights Defender (HRD) in Togo. The Amnesty International Security Lab investigation found that the spyware used in these attacks ties to an attacker group known as the Donot Team, previously connected to attacks in India and Pakistan among others. Amnesty International has identified links between the infrastructure used by Donot Team and an Indian cybersecurity company, Innefu Labs, which advertises digital security, data analytics, and predictive policing services to law enforcement and armed forces. This research highlights the threat “hacker-for-hire” attacks pose to HRDs and civil society globally.

Namibia: “We don’t feel well treated”: Tuberculosis and the Indigenous San peoples of Namibia

October 6, 2021

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that usually affects the lungs, though it can affect any organ in the body. It can develop when bacteria spread through droplets in the air. TB can be fatal, but in many cases, TB is preventable and treatable. This report examines the human rights impact of the prevalence of Tuberculosis (TB) and Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among the Indigenous San peoples of Namibia. Combining political economy and root-cause methodology, the report explores the socioeconomic factors that make the San vulnerable to TB and limit their access to adequate health services.

A double dose of inequality: Pharma companies and the Covid-19 vaccines crisis

September 22, 2021

The rapid development of effective Covid-19 vaccines in 2020 gave hope to the world in the darkest days of the deadly pandemic. However, the vaccine roll-out has been massively skewed towards wealthy nations. While rich states have hoarded vaccines, companies have also played a decisive role in restricting fair access to a life-saving health product. This report focuses on six leading vaccine developers, AstraZeneca, BioNTech, Johnson & Johnson, Moderna, Novavax and Pfizer, assessing each company’s human rights policy, pricing structure, records on intellectual property, knowledge and technology sharing, allocation of available vaccine doses and transparency.